新澳门葡京娱乐场下载2016考研英语寒假积累之固定搭配,全国工商管理硕士研究生考试英语模拟试题

  繁多正值预备201陆学士考生的考生都领悟都教师,报考学士[微博]葡萄牙语在寒假中应有如何备考呢,都教师认为,菲律宾语在寒假阶段着重基础积存,除了词汇的记得外,固定搭配也是一大重视,能够支持考生更加好的理解段落文章大旨。上面都教师就使用真题带各位考生来看看应该珍视记念何种搭配的词汇。

Section I Use of English

Medicine has not always shown a lot of respect for the human body. Just
think about the ghoulish disregard early surgeons had for our corporeal
integrity. They poked holes in the skull and copiously drained blood
with leeches or lancets—a practice that remained a medical mainstay
through the late 19th century. Even today many of the most popular
surgeries involve the wholesale removal of body parts—the appendix,
gallbladder, tonsils, uterus (usually after the childbearing years)—with
an assurance that patients will do just fine without them. There are
many valid reasons for these “ectomies,” but what has become
increasingly less defensible is the idea that losing these organs is of
little or no consequence.

  真题段落一:

Directions:

Take the appendix. Or rather leave it be, if possible. Many of us
learned in school that this tiny, fingerlike projection off the colon is
a useless, vestigial remnant of our evolution, much like the puny leg
bones found in some snakes. But that idea has been debunked, says
evolutionary biologist Heather Smith, director of Anatomical
Laboratories at Midwestern University in Arizona. A 2017 study led by
Smith reviewed data on 533 species of mammals and found that the
appendix appears across multiple, unrelated species. “This suggests
there’s some good reason to have it,” she says.

  The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than
others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But
Gregory Cochran is prepared to say it anyway. He is that rare bird, a
secientist who works independently of any institution. He helped
popularize tha idea that some diseases not previously thought to have a
bacterail cause were actually infections ,which aroused much controversy
when it was first suggested.

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank
and mark A, B, C or D onANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

The reason appears to be immunological and gastrointestinal. In all
species that have an appendix, Smith notes, it either contains or is
closely associated with lymphoid tissue, which plays a role in
supporting the immune system. In humans, the appendix also harbors a
layer of helpful gut bacteria—a fact discovered by scientists at Duke
University. In a 2007 paper, they proposed that it serves as a “safe
house” to preserve these microbes, so that when the gut microbiome is
hit hard by illness, we can replenish it with good guys holed up in the
appendix. Some evidence for this idea surfaced in 2011, when a study
showed that people without an appendix are two and half times more
likely to suffer a recurrence of infection with Clostridium difficile, a
dangerous strain of gut bacteria that thrives in the absence of
friendlier types.

  Even he, however,might tremble at the thought of what he is about to
do.

The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others
is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory
Cochran is to say it anyway. He is that bird, a scientist who works
independently any institution. He helped popularize the idea that some
diseases not thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections,
which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested。

The appendix may have more far-flung roles in the body—including some
that can go awry. A study published last October found that misfolded
alpha-synuclein—an abnormal protein found in the brain of Parkinson’s
disease patients—can accumulate in the appendix. Intriguingly, the study
found that people who had the organ removed as young adults appear to
have some modest protection against Parkinson’s.

  ●高频搭配

he, however, might tremble at the of what he is about to do. Together
with another two scientists, he is publishing a paper which not only
that one group of humanity is more intelligent than the others, but
explains the process that has brought this about. The group in are a
particular people originated from central Europe. The process is natural
selection。

New research has also shed light on the value of our tonsils and
adenoids. In a study published last July, an international team assessed
the long-term impact of removing these structures, or leaving them, in
1.2 million Danish children. Over a follow-up period of 10 to 30 years,
the 5 percent or so who had one or both sets of organs extracted before
age nine were found to have a twofold to threefold higher rate of upper
respiratory diseases and higher rates of allergies and asthma. Notably
they suffered more frequently from ear infections and, in the case of
adenotonsillectomies, sinus infections—conditions thought to be helped
by surgery.

  不敢公开:Dare not speak its name

This group generally do well in IQ test, 12-15 points above the value of
100, and have contributed to the intellectual and cultural life of the
West, as the of their elites, including several world-renowned
scientists, . They also suffer more often than most people from a number
of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts, , have
previously been thought unrelated. The former has been to social
effects, such as a strong tradition of education. The latter was seen as
a (an) of genetic isolation. Dr. Cochran suggests that the intelligence
and diseases are intimately . His argument is that the unusual history
of these people has them to unique evolutionary pressures that have
resulted in this state of affairs。

We have known for a long time that the adenoids and tonsils “act as a
first line of defense against pathogens that enter through the airways
or eating,” says Sean Byars, a senior research fellow at the Melbourne
School of Population and Global Health and lead author of the paper. The
fact that these tissues are most prominent in children, with the
adenoids nearly gone by adulthood, has bolstered the view that they are
not essential, but as Byars points out, “maybe there’s a reason they are
largest in childhood.” Perhaps they play a developmental role, helping
to shape the immune system in ways that have lasting consequences.

  不依赖于任何机构:Work indipendently of any institution

1.[A] selected[B] prepared[C] obliged[D] pleased

Byars cautions that his study, large though it is, awaits confirmation
by others and that the decision to treat any given child must be made on
an individual basis. Still, he says, “Given these are some of the most
common surgeries in childhood, our results suggest a conservative
approach would be wise.”

  扶助广泛该意见:Help popularize the idea

2.[A] unique[B] particular[C] special[D] rare

It is worth noting that tonsillectomy rates have declined in the U.S.,
especially since the heyday in the mid-20th century. Surgeons are also
doing fewer hysterectomies, reflecting a growing view that the uterus
does not outlive its usefulness once childbearing is done and that there
are less drastic ways to address common issues such as fibroid tumors.

  引起了不小的争持:Arouse much controversy

3.[A] of[B] with[C] in[D] against

So are any human body parts truly useless or vestigial? Perhaps the best
case can be made for the wisdom teeth. “Our faces are so flat, compared
with other primates, that there’s often not room for them,” Smith
observes. And given how we butcher and cook our food, “we really don’t
need them.”

  1想到……就害怕的身体颤抖:Tremble at the thought of

4.[A] subsequently[B] presently[C] previously[D] lately

  独具匠心,出人头地的人:Rare bird

5.[A] Only[B] So[C] Even[D] Hence

  由细菌滋生的:Have a bacterial cause

6.[A] thought[B] sight[C] cost[D] risk

  ●加强习题

7.[A] advises[B] suggests[C] protests[D] objects

  He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not previously
thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections , which
aroused much controversy when it was first suggested.

8.[A] progress[B] fact[C] need[D] question

  结构提示:that some diseases 是前方 the idea 的同位语从句,not
previously thought to have a bacterial
cause做后置定语修饰后面包车型大巴diseases,主干是some diseases were actually
infections.

9.[A] attaining[B] scoring[C] reaching[D] calculating

  参考译文:他支持广泛那样三个眼光,即之前以为不是由细菌滋生的一点疾病实际正是传染病,该意见第三遍提议来的时候,引起了相当的大的抵触。

10.[A] normal[B] common[C] mean[D] total

  真题段落二:

11.[A] unconsciously[B] disproportionately

  They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty
genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts , however, social
effects, such as a strong tradition of valuing education. The latterwas
seen as a consequence of genetic isolation .Dr.Cochran suggests that the
inteligence and diseases are intimately linked. His argument is that the
unusual history of these people has subjected them to unique
evolutionary pressures that have reasulted in this paradoxical state of
affairs.

[C] indefinitely[D] unaccountably

  ●高频搭配

12.[A] missions[B] fortunes[C] interests[D] careers

  碰到局部令人非常的慢的遗传性疾病

13.[A] affirm[B] witness[C] observe[D] approve

  从前被以为是不相干的have previously been thought unrelated

14.[A] moreover[B] therefore[C] however[D] meanwhile

  归因于社会影响 have been put down to social effects

15.[A] given up[B] got over[C] carried on[D] put down

  中度重教的思想a strong tradition of valuing education

16.[A] assessing[B] supervising[C] administering[D] valuing

  被用作基因隔绝的结果 be seen as a consequence of genetic isolation

17.[A] development[B] origin[C] consequence[D] instrument

  密切相关 be intimately linked

18.[A] linked[B] integrated[C] woven[D] combined

  使他们接受独特的开荒进取力量have subjected them to unique evolutionary
pressures

19.[A] limited[B] subjected[C] converted[D] directed

  争持的情况 paradoxical state of affairs

20.[A] paradoxical[B] incompatible[C] inevitable[D] continuous

  ●加强习题

Section Ⅱ Reading comprehension (50 points)

  Dr.Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are
intimately linked.

Part A

  参考译文:Cochran大学生以为,高智与病魔密切相关。

Directions:

  希望经过那两段真题中的段落,能让考生认知到应有积累何种固定搭配,寒假是打牢根基的好时节,希望各位考生能够踏实备考。预祝我们备考顺遂,取得佳绩佳绩!

Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each
passage by choosing A, B, C and D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.
(40 points)

  小说来源:文都教育

Text1

The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the
classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the
problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making
a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision.
Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives
rely on what is vaguely termed intuition to manage a network of
interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity,
inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the
process of thinking。

Generations of writers on management have recognized that some
practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such
writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the
opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for
capriciousness。

Isenberg’s recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers
reveals that managers’ intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior
managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they
intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on
intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This
intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of
painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third
function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and
practice into an integrated picture, often in an Aha! experience.
Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more
rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal
decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic
methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions
suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the
correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass
in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution.
Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process
in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns。

One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management
is that thinking is inseparable from acting. Since managers often know
what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently
act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in
thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their
companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and
then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert。

Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they
face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn
more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop
a more complete understanding of the issue. One implication of
thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the
problem, not just of implementing the solution。

  1. According to the text, senior managers use intuition in all of the
    following ways EXCEPT to

[A] speed up of the creation of a solution to a problem。

[B] identify a problem。

[C] bring together disparate facts。

[D] stipulate clear goals。

  1. The text suggests which of the following about the writers on
    management mentioned in line 1, paragraph 2?

[A] They have criticized managers for not following the classical
rational model of decision analysis。

[B] They have not based their analyses on a sufficiently large sample
of actual managers。

[C] They have relied in drawing their conclusions on what managers say
rather than on what managers do。

[D] They have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making
business decisions。

  1. It can be inferred from the text that which of the following would
    most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who
    uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal
    decision analysis?

[A] Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not。

[B] Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic
analysis; Manager Y does not。

[C] Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a
problem; Manager Y does not。

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