抵触的景色 paradoxical state of affairs

correspondence is explained。

The reason appears to be immunological and gastrointestinal. In all
species that have an appendix, Smith notes, it either contains or is
closely associated with lymphoid tissue, which plays a role in
supporting the immune system. In humans, the appendix also harbors a
layer of helpful gut bacteria—a fact discovered by scientists at Duke
University. In a 2007 paper, they proposed that it serves as a “safe
house” to preserve these microbes, so that when the gut microbiome is
hit hard by illness, we can replenish it with good guys holed up in the
appendix. Some evidence for this idea surfaced in 2011, when a study
showed that people without an appendix are two and half times more
likely to suffer a recurrence of infection with Clostridium difficile, a
dangerous strain of gut bacteria that thrives in the absence of
friendlier types.

  高度重教的理念意识a strong tradition of valuing education

14.[A] moreover[B] therefore[C] however[D] meanwhile

It is worth noting that tonsillectomy rates have declined in the U.S.,
especially since the heyday in the mid-20th century. Surgeons are also
doing fewer hysterectomies, reflecting a growing view that the uterus
does not outlive its usefulness once childbearing is done and that there
are less drastic ways to address common issues such as fibroid tumors.

新莆京线上娱乐,  密切相关 be intimately linked

[C] The results of recent research are introduced and summarized。

Take the appendix. Or rather leave it be, if possible. Many of us
learned in school that this tiny, fingerlike projection off the colon is
a useless, vestigial remnant of our evolution, much like the puny leg
bones found in some snakes. But that idea has been debunked, says
evolutionary biologist Heather Smith, director of Anatomical
Laboratories at Midwestern University in Arizona. A 2017 study led by
Smith reviewed data on 533 species of mammals and found that the
appendix appears across multiple, unrelated species. “This suggests
there’s some good reason to have it,” she says.

  不依赖于任何机构:Work indipendently of any institution

meaning of the difference between left-eyed and right-eyed
flatfish?[A] “Most striking” (line 3, paragraph 1)[B] “variation is
adaptive” (line 2, paragraph 2)[C] “mechanically disadvantageous”
(line 7, paragraph 3)[D] “evolutionary red herring” (line 9, paragraph

New research has also shed light on the value of our tonsils and
adenoids. In a study published last July, an international team assessed
the long-term impact of removing these structures, or leaving them, in
1.2 million Danish children. Over a follow-up period of 10 to 30 years,
the 5 percent or so who had one or both sets of organs extracted before
age nine were found to have a twofold to threefold higher rate of upper
respiratory diseases and higher rates of allergies and asthma. Notably
they suffered more frequently from ear infections and, in the case of
adenotonsillectomies, sinus infections—conditions thought to be helped
by surgery.

  He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not previously
thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections , which
aroused much controversy when it was first suggested.

You are going to read a list of headings and a text about how to select
a fund. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A–F for each
numbered paragraph (41–45). The first and last paragraphs of the text
are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to
use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Medicine has not always shown a lot of respect for the human body. Just
think about the ghoulish disregard early surgeons had for our corporeal
integrity. They poked holes in the skull and copiously drained blood
with leeches or lancets—a practice that remained a medical mainstay
through the late 19th century. Even today many of the most popular
surgeries involve the wholesale removal of body parts—the appendix,
gallbladder, tonsils, uterus (usually after the childbearing years)—with
an assurance that patients will do just fine without them. There are
many valid reasons for these “ectomies,” but what has become
increasingly less defensible is the idea that losing these organs is of
little or no consequence.


Isenberg’s recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers
reveals that managers’ intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior
managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they
intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on
intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This
intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of
painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third
function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and
practice into an integrated picture, often in an Aha! experience.
Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more
rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal
decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic
methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions
suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the
correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass
in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution.
Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process
in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns。

We have known for a long time that the adenoids and tonsils “act as a
first line of defense against pathogens that enter through the airways
or eating,” says Sean Byars, a senior research fellow at the Melbourne
School of Population and Global Health and lead author of the paper. The
fact that these tissues are most prominent in children, with the
adenoids nearly gone by adulthood, has bolstered the view that they are
not essential, but as Byars points out, “maybe there’s a reason they are
largest in childhood.” Perhaps they play a developmental role, helping
to shape the immune system in ways that have lasting consequences.

  独具匠心,高人一头的人:Rare bird

  1. It can be inferred from the text that which of the following would
    most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who
    uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal
    decision analysis?

The appendix may have more far-flung roles in the body—including some
that can go awry. A study published last October found that misfolded
alpha-synuclein—an abnormal protein found in the brain of Parkinson’s
disease patients—can accumulate in the appendix. Intriguingly, the study
found that people who had the organ removed as young adults appear to
have some modest protection against Parkinson’s.

  从前被以为是不相干的have previously been thought unrelated

Moreover, the integration of the European community will oblige
television companies to cooperate more closely in terms of both
production and distribution。

Byars cautions that his study, large though it is, awaits confirmation
by others and that the decision to treat any given child must be made on
an individual basis. Still, he says, “Given these are some of the most
common surgeries in childhood, our results suggest a conservative
approach would be wise.”

  归因于社会影响 have been put down to social effects

the maximum profit.[C] A flower stall in which the various species of
flowers are arranged according to their price.[D] A housing
development in which the length of the front struts supporting the porch
of each

So are any human body parts truly useless or vestigial? Perhaps the best
case can be made for the wisdom teeth. “Our faces are so flat, compared
with other primates, that there’s often not room for them,” Smith
observes. And given how we butcher and cook our food, “we really don’t
need them.”


The problem with the above explanation is that the Japanese starry
flounder population is almost exclusively left-eyed, and natural
selection never promotes a purely less advantageous variation. As other
explanations proved equally untenable, biologists concluded that there
is no important adaptive difference between left-eyedness and
right-eyedness, and that the two characteristics are genetically
associated with some other adaptively significant characteristic. This
situation is one commonly encountered by evolutionary biologists, who
must often decide whether a characteristic is adaptive or selectively
neutral. As for the left-eyed and right-eyed flatfish, their difference,
however striking, appears to be an evolutionary red herring.36.
According to the text, starry flounder differ form most other species of
flatfish in that starry flounder [A] are not basically bilaterally
symmetric. [B] do not become asymmetric until adulthood. [C] do not
all share the same asymmetry. [D] have both eyes on the same side of
the head.37. Which of the following best describes the organization of
the text as a whole? [A] A phenomenon is described and an
interpretation presented and rejected. [B] A generalization is made
and supporting evidence is supplied and weighed. [C] A contradiction
is noted and a resolution is suggested and then modified. [D] A series
of observations is presented and explained in terms of the dominant
theory.38. The text supplies information for answering which of the
following questions? [A] Why are Japanese starry flounder mostly
left-eyed? [B] Why should the eye-sidedness in starry flounder be
considered selectively neutral? [C] Why have biologists recently
become interested in whether a characteristic is adaptive or

  The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than
others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But
Gregory Cochran is prepared to say it anyway. He is that rare bird, a
secientist who works independently of any institution. He helped
popularize tha idea that some diseases not previously thought to have a
bacterail cause were actually infections ,which aroused much controversy
when it was first suggested.

  1. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first
    paragraph of the text?


[C] The colonists imitated the high culture of England, and did not
develop a culture that was uniquely their own。

  壹想到……就小心翼翼的骨血之躯颤抖:Tremble at the thought of

Two stylistic characteristics shaped the way Coltrane played the tenor
saxophone: he favored playing fast runs of notes built on a melody and
depended on heavy, regularly accented beats. The first led Coltrane to
“sheets of sound” where he raced faster and faster, pile-driving notes
into each other to suggest stacked harmonies. The second meant that his
sense of rhythm was almost as close to rock as to bebop。


made to a thesis referred to earlier in the text.[C] A thesis referred
to earlier in the text is mentioned, and three examples are presented

  引起了十分大的争论:Arouse much controversy

[C] bring together disparate facts。

  Even he, however,might tremble at the thought of what he is about to

  1. Which of the following statements about migrants to colonial North
    America is supported by information in the text?


[D] relate the experience of the migrants to the political values that
eventually shaped the character of the United States。


  1. The text provides support for which of the following statements?

  协理广泛该意见:Help popularize the idea

[A] Watching related expenses and making wise choice

  被作为基因隔断的结果 be seen as a consequence of genetic isolation

[C] Weighing your financial goals and expectations first

  使她们承受独特的进步力量have subjected them to unique evolutionary

[F] Not too special

  由细菌滋生的:Have a bacterial cause

[A] They have criticized managers for not following the classical
rational model of decision analysis。


Eating better. Exercising. Investing. There are a lot of things you know
should be doing. The problem is that getting started always seems to be
the hardest part. For many investors, mutual funds are a good way to go,
but trying to sort through the number of available choices – now more
than 10,000 – makes this important task appear overwhelming. Let’s look
at some ways to cut that number down to a reasonable size, as well as
other factors to consider when selecting your first fund。


One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management
is that thinking is inseparable from acting. Since managers often know
what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently
act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in
thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their
companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and
then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert。


house increases as houses are built up the hill.40. Which of the
following phrases from the text best expresses the author’s conclusion
about the



  They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty
genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts , however, social
effects, such as a strong tradition of valuing education. The latterwas
seen as a consequence of genetic isolation .Dr.Cochran suggests that the
inteligence and diseases are intimately linked. His argument is that the
unusual history of these people has subjected them to unique
evolutionary pressures that have reasulted in this paradoxical state of



[B] Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic
analysis; Manager Y does not。

  不敢公开:Dare not speak its name

Section Ⅳ Writing

  Dr.Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are
intimately linked.

  1. The primary purpose of the text is to [A] discuss the place of
    Coltrane in the world of jazz and describe his musical explorations.
    [B] examine the nature of bebop and contrast it with improvisational
    jazz. [C] analyze the musical sources of Coltrane’s style and their
    influence on his work. [D] acknowledge the influence of Coltrane’s
    music on rock music and rock musicians。

  2. Which of the following best describes the organization of the fourth
    paragraph? [A] A thesis referred to earlier in the text is mentioned
    and illustrated with three specific examples. [B] A thesis is stated
    and three examples are given each suggesting that a correction needs to

  结构提示:that some diseases 是前方 the idea 的同位语从句,not
previously thought to have a bacterial
cause做前置定语修饰前边的diseases,主干是some diseases were actually

[A] A larger percentage of migrants to colonial North America came as
indentured servants than as free agents interested in acquiring land。


Three recordings illustrate Coltrane’s energizing explorations.
Recording Kind of Blue with Miles Davis, Coltrane found himself outside
bop, exploring modal melodies. Here he played surging, lengthy solos
built largely around repeated motifs — an organizing principle unlike
that of free jazz saxophone player Ornette Coleman, who modulated or
altered melodies in his solos. On Giant Steps, Coltrane debuted as
leader, introducing his own compositions. Here the sheets of sound,
downbeat accents, repetitions, and great speed are part of each solo,
and the variety of the shapes of his phrases is unique. Coltrane’s
searching explorations produced solid achievement. My Favorite Things
was another kind of watershed. Here Coltrane played the soprano
saxophone, an instrument seldom used by jazz musicians. Musically, the
results were astounding. With the soprano’s piping sound, ideas that had
sounded dark and brooding acquired a feeling of giddy fantasy。

Bailyn’s third proposition suggest two general patterns prevailing among
the many thousands of migrants: one group came as indentured servants,
another came to acquire land. Surprisingly, Bailyn suggests that those
who recruited indentured servants were the driving forces of
transatlantic migration. These colonial entrepreneurs helped determine
the social character of people who came to pre-industrial North America.
At first, thousands of unskilled laborers were recruited; by the 1730’s,
however, American employers demanded skilled artisans。

Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each
passage by choosing A, B, C and D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.
(40 points)

Although Bailyn goes on to apply his approach to some thousands of
indentured servants who migrated just prior to the revolution, he fails
to link their experience with the political development of the United
States. Evidence presented in his work suggests how we might make such a
connection. These indentured servants were treated as slaves for the
period during which they had sold their time to American employers. It
is not surprising that as soon as they served their time they passed up
good wages in the cities and headed west to ensure their personal
independence by acquiring land. Thus, it is in the west that a
peculiarly American political culture began, among colonists who were
suspicious of authority and intensely anti-aristocratic。


The ease with which a fish can reverse the effect of the sidedness of
its eye asymmetry simply by turning around has caused biologists to
study internal anatomy, especially the optic nerves, for the answer. In
all flatfish the optic nerves cross, so that the right optic nerve is
joined to the brain’s left side and vice versa. This crossing introduces
an asymmetry, as one optic nerve must cross above or below the other. G.
H. Parker reasoned that if, for example, a flatfish’s left eye migrated
when the right optic nerve was on top, there would be a twisting of
nerves, which might be mechanically disadvantageous. For starry
flounders, then, the left-eyed variety would be selected against, since
in a starry flounder the left optic nerve is uppermost。

16.[A] assessing[B] supervising[C] administering[D] valuing

It is not easy to talk about the role of the mass media in this
overwhelmingly significant phase in European history. History and news
become confused, and one’s impressions tend to be a mixture of
skepticism and optimism. Television is one of the means by which these
feelings are created and conveyed — and perhaps never before has it
served so much to connect different peoples and nations as in the recent
events in Europe. The Europe that is now forming cannot be anything
other than its peoples, their cultures and national identities. With
this in mind we can begin to analyze the European television scene. In
Europe, as elsewhere, multi-media groups have been increasingly
successful: groups which bring together television, radio, newspapers,
magazines and publishing houses that work in relation to one another.
One Italian example would be the Berlusconi group, while abroad Maxwell
and Murdoch come to mind。

Whatever the market does, try to take it in stride. You’re in for the
long haul, so don’t worry about the market’s day-to-day gyrations. Relax
and resist the temptation to monitor your first investment daily. Check
in on your mutual funds once a month, and give your portfolio a thorough
exam every 6 to 12 months. And consider adding to your fund each month.
An automatic investment plan makes it a relatively painless process。


When Coltrane began recording for the Impulse! Label, he was still
searching. His music became raucous, physical. His influence on rockers
was enormous, including Jimi Hendrix, the rock guitarist, who, following
Coltrane, raised the extended guitar solo using repeated motifs to a
kind of rock art form。

[A] It is totally implausible。

In this part, you are asked to write a composition according to the
information below. You should write more than 150 words neatly on ANSWER
SHEET 2. (15 points)

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank
and mark A, B, C or D onANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

15.[A] given up[B] got over[C] carried on[D] put down

In this section there is a paragraph in English .Translate it into
Chinese and write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

19.[A] limited[B] subjected[C] converted[D] directed

selectively neutral? [D] How do the eyes in flatfish migrate?39. Which
of the following is most clearly similar to a cline as it is described
in the second

[B] Migrants who came to the colonies as indentured servants were more
successful at making a livelihood than were farmers and artisans。

10.[A] normal[B] common[C] mean[D] total