家庭在教育中的作用,2016考研英语

  大家在此之前说过,复习报考博士[微博]德语要器重真题,在回忆词汇和练习阅读精通、翻译题的时候要整合真题做搭配记念,并辅以相应的演练,上面大家就以真题为例,从中接纳出轻易出现的考试场点,让二零一五的考生更加深厚地掌握“搭配回忆”法。

1 Good parenting

One of the most difficult transitions faced by parents and youth is that
of going from elementary to middle school. Parents are often dismayed
that their child who once confided every detail now spends more time
alone or with friends. This may be the first time parents are called by
a teacher and told their child is less focused on school than in the
past. While this can be disheartening, it may help to know that much of
this is a normal developmental process.

  【相关真题】

Good schooling
The parent-child relationship

Erikson called this stage, “Identity Versus Role Confusion” to imply
youths’ attempts to fit into society during this stage. As an almost
teenager, youth at this stage begin separating from parents and start
focusing more on peer bonding. Most parents remember going through this
stage and may fear their child will make mistakes.

  ①Families have alsoexperienced changes these years. ②Morefamilies
consist of one-parent households or two working parents;
consequently,children are likely to have less supervision at home than
was common in thetraditional family structure. ③Thislack of parental
supervision is thought to be an influence on juvenile crimerates. ④Other
identifiable causes ofoffensive acts include frustration or failure in
school, the increasedavailability of drugs and alcohol, and the growing
incidence of child abuse andchild neglect. ⑤Allthese conditions tend to
increase the probability of a child committing acriminal act, although a
direct causal relationship has not yet beenestablished。

2 Build strong family relationships

Know that despite your best efforts, your child is going to make some
mistakes and some of these mistakes, while difficult, will help your
child learn and grow. The important thing to focus upon at this stage is
guiding your child so they do not make major life changing mistakes that
impact their future. For example, parents will want to monitor online
communications, discuss the consequences of sexual behaviors and drug
use, and ensure children are safe. Mistakes such as these can be severe
and include sexual abuse, disease, pregnancy, legal issues, and other
serious issues. At the same time, parents cannot and should not go
everywhere with their children, complete school work for them, or solve
all problems on the child’s behalf. Doing so, ensures the child will not
learn to solve problems needed to succeed in life.

  【高频考试场点】

Build a sense of belonging
Have meals as a family
Share family chores
Share ideas and feelings

So what is a parent to do? First, monitor your child without interfering
in learning. This means knowing who your child is with or talking to
online, where your child is at all times, and ensuring appropriate adult
supervision when away from home. It also means allowing the child to
suffer minor consequences. Adlerian therapists refer to “natural and
logical consequences.” For example, a child who does not eat dinner may
be hungry or a child who loses a book may have to pay to replace it.
These are healthy consequences and help children learn from their own
choices and mistakes without life altering consequences.

  一.爆发变化:experiencechanges

Strengthen family bonds
Family bonding activities

Another thing to remember, if called by the school, is that your child
may be testing boundaries and focusing more on friends than homework.
This may be frustrating to hear, but take heart knowing this often
occurs as part of normal development. This does not mean, however, that
children should not be held accountable. At this point, parents may have
to become more involved in monitoring their child’s school work,
friendships, and implement immediate and consistent consequences.

  2.由单亲家庭构成:consistof one-parent households

Achieve a good work-family balance
Help their children with homework

While this stage in your child’s life can be trying, know it doesn’t
last forever. Also, much of what ensues is quite positive. Watching your
child grow as they test boundaries can be humorous at times and if you
do your job as a parent well, you will be proud of the person your child
grows up to be.

  三.XKF会对青少年作案率发生影响:XKFis thought to be an influence on
juvenile crime rates。

Monitor their children’s academic performance
Are more involved in their children’s education

  4.日增大概性:increasethe probability

These parents believe that they are more involved in their children’s
education than their own parents were.

  5.直接的因果报应关系还尚未树立起来:adirect causal relationship has not
yet been established

Teach their children good manners
Provide good role models for their children

  陆.可分明的原故:identifiablecauses

3 Working parents

  七.犯罪的作为:offensiveacts

It helps busy working parents balance their lives.

  捌.某事产生尤为多:thegrowing incidence of something

Have busy careers
(Children) Spend their after-school hours without adult supervision

  【翻译演习】

Internet addiction
Spend too much time online
Weaken family bonds
Feel disconnected from each other
Cause family conflict/ high divorce rate

  ①Families have alsoexperienced changes these years。

4 Parenting style/ child-rearing style

  ②More families consist ofone-parent households or two working
parents; consequently, children are likelyto have less supervision at
home than was common in the traditional familystructure。

Expect their children to do exactly what they are told
Stifle their creativity
Damage their self-esteem

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