不依附于任何机构:Work indipendently of any institution

[C] Weighing your financial goals and expectations first

So are any human body parts truly useless or vestigial? Perhaps the best
case can be made for the wisdom teeth. “Our faces are so flat, compared
with other primates, that there’s often not room for them,” Smith
observes. And given how we butcher and cook our food, “we really don’t
need them.”

  1想到……就恐怖的肉体颤抖:Tremble at the thought of

[A] High culture in New England never equaled the high culture of

Byars cautions that his study, large though it is, awaits confirmation
by others and that the decision to treat any given child must be made on
an individual basis. Still, he says, “Given these are some of the most
common surgeries in childhood, our results suggest a conservative
approach would be wise.”


Funds that invest solely in a single market sectors, called specialty
funds, often have impressive returns and may be great additions to a
diversified portfolio. However, the success of such funds depends
largely on the fortunes of a particular market sector. Hence, specialty
funds probably aren’t the best way to start. For your first fund, look
for a diversified stock fund that has exposure to different types of

The reason appears to be immunological and gastrointestinal. In all
species that have an appendix, Smith notes, it either contains or is
closely associated with lymphoid tissue, which plays a role in
supporting the immune system. In humans, the appendix also harbors a
layer of helpful gut bacteria—a fact discovered by scientists at Duke
University. In a 2007 paper, they proposed that it serves as a “safe
house” to preserve these microbes, so that when the gut microbiome is
hit hard by illness, we can replenish it with good guys holed up in the
appendix. Some evidence for this idea surfaced in 2011, when a study
showed that people without an appendix are two and half times more
likely to suffer a recurrence of infection with Clostridium difficile, a
dangerous strain of gut bacteria that thrives in the absence of
friendlier types.

  不敢公开:Dare not speak its name

paragraph of the text?[A] A vegetable market in which the various
items are grouped according to place of origin. [B] A wheat field in
which different varieties of wheat are planted to yield a crop that will

We have known for a long time that the adenoids and tonsils “act as a
first line of defense against pathogens that enter through the airways
or eating,” says Sean Byars, a senior research fellow at the Melbourne
School of Population and Global Health and lead author of the paper. The
fact that these tissues are most prominent in children, with the
adenoids nearly gone by adulthood, has bolstered the view that they are
not essential, but as Byars points out, “maybe there’s a reason they are
largest in childhood.” Perhaps they play a developmental role, helping
to shape the immune system in ways that have lasting consequences.


The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others
is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory
Cochran is to say it anyway. He is that bird, a scientist who works
independently any institution. He helped popularize the idea that some
diseases not thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections,
which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested。

It is worth noting that tonsillectomy rates have declined in the U.S.,
especially since the heyday in the mid-20th century. Surgeons are also
doing fewer hysterectomies, reflecting a growing view that the uterus
does not outlive its usefulness once childbearing is done and that there
are less drastic ways to address common issues such as fibroid tumors.



New research has also shed light on the value of our tonsils and
adenoids. In a study published last July, an international team assessed
the long-term impact of removing these structures, or leaving them, in
1.2 million Danish children. Over a follow-up period of 10 to 30 years,
the 5 percent or so who had one or both sets of organs extracted before
age nine were found to have a twofold to threefold higher rate of upper
respiratory diseases and higher rates of allergies and asthma. Notably
they suffered more frequently from ear infections and, in the case of
adenotonsillectomies, sinus infections—conditions thought to be helped
by surgery.



The appendix may have more far-flung roles in the body—including some
that can go awry. A study published last October found that misfolded
alpha-synuclein—an abnormal protein found in the brain of Parkinson’s
disease patients—can accumulate in the appendix. Intriguingly, the study
found that people who had the organ removed as young adults appear to
have some modest protection against Parkinson’s.

  The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than
others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But
Gregory Cochran is prepared to say it anyway. He is that rare bird, a
secientist who works independently of any institution. He helped
popularize tha idea that some diseases not previously thought to have a
bacterail cause were actually infections ,which aroused much controversy
when it was first suggested.

The problem with the above explanation is that the Japanese starry
flounder population is almost exclusively left-eyed, and natural
selection never promotes a purely less advantageous variation. As other
explanations proved equally untenable, biologists concluded that there
is no important adaptive difference between left-eyedness and
right-eyedness, and that the two characteristics are genetically
associated with some other adaptively significant characteristic. This
situation is one commonly encountered by evolutionary biologists, who
must often decide whether a characteristic is adaptive or selectively
neutral. As for the left-eyed and right-eyed flatfish, their difference,
however striking, appears to be an evolutionary red herring.36.
According to the text, starry flounder differ form most other species of
flatfish in that starry flounder [A] are not basically bilaterally
symmetric. [B] do not become asymmetric until adulthood. [C] do not
all share the same asymmetry. [D] have both eyes on the same side of
the head.37. Which of the following best describes the organization of
the text as a whole? [A] A phenomenon is described and an
interpretation presented and rejected. [B] A generalization is made
and supporting evidence is supplied and weighed. [C] A contradiction
is noted and a resolution is suggested and then modified. [D] A series
of observations is presented and explained in terms of the dominant
theory.38. The text supplies information for answering which of the
following questions? [A] Why are Japanese starry flounder mostly
left-eyed? [B] Why should the eye-sidedness in starry flounder be
considered selectively neutral? [C] Why have biologists recently
become interested in whether a characteristic is adaptive or

Take the appendix. Or rather leave it be, if possible. Many of us
learned in school that this tiny, fingerlike projection off the colon is
a useless, vestigial remnant of our evolution, much like the puny leg
bones found in some snakes. But that idea has been debunked, says
evolutionary biologist Heather Smith, director of Anatomical
Laboratories at Midwestern University in Arizona. A 2017 study led by
Smith reviewed data on 533 species of mammals and found that the
appendix appears across multiple, unrelated species. “This suggests
there’s some good reason to have it,” she says.

  标新立异,出一头地的人:Rare bird

[B] identify a problem。

Medicine has not always shown a lot of respect for the human body. Just
think about the ghoulish disregard early surgeons had for our corporeal
integrity. They poked holes in the skull and copiously drained blood
with leeches or lancets—a practice that remained a medical mainstay
through the late 19th century. Even today many of the most popular
surgeries involve the wholesale removal of body parts—the appendix,
gallbladder, tonsils, uterus (usually after the childbearing years)—with
an assurance that patients will do just fine without them. There are
many valid reasons for these “ectomies,” but what has become
increasingly less defensible is the idea that losing these organs is of
little or no consequence.

  He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not previously
thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections , which
aroused much controversy when it was first suggested.

Part B


[A] give sufficient emphasis to the cultural and political
interdependence of the colonies and England。

  Dr.Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are
intimately linked.

[C] bring together disparate facts。


4.[A] subsequently[B] presently[C] previously[D] lately

  They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty
genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts , however, social
effects, such as a strong tradition of valuing education. The latterwas
seen as a consequence of genetic isolation .Dr.Cochran suggests that the
inteligence and diseases are intimately linked. His argument is that the
unusual history of these people has subjected them to unique
evolutionary pressures that have reasulted in this paradoxical state of

[A] Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who
rely on formal decision analysis。

  Even he, however,might tremble at the thought of what he is about to

made to a thesis referred to earlier in the text.[C] A thesis referred
to earlier in the text is mentioned, and three examples are presented

  多数正值准备2015学士考生的考生都打听都教师,报考硕士[微博]德语在寒假中应有怎么着备考呢,都助教感觉,土耳其共和国(Türkiye Cumhuriyeti)语在寒假阶段重点基础积累,除了词汇的记念外,固定搭配也是一大重点,能够援助考生更加好的敞亮段落作品焦点。上边都教授就动用真题带各位考生来探视应该重视回想何种搭配的词汇。

[A] speed up of the creation of a solution to a problem。

  被用作基因隔绝的结果 be seen as a consequence of genetic isolation

Generations of writers on management have recognized that some
practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such
writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the
opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for

  引起了一点都不小的争议:Arouse much controversy

You are going to read a list of headings and a text about how to select
a fund. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A–F for each
numbered paragraph (41–45). The first and last paragraphs of the text
are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to
use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)



  支持广泛该意见:Help popularize the idea

Eating better. Exercising. Investing. There are a lot of things you know
should be doing. The problem is that getting started always seems to be
the hardest part. For many investors, mutual funds are a good way to go,
but trying to sort through the number of available choices – now more
than 10,000 – makes this important task appear overwhelming. Let’s look
at some ways to cut that number down to a reasonable size, as well as
other factors to consider when selecting your first fund。


correspondence is explained。

  归因于社会影响 have been put down to social effects

You and your family are planning for a trip to Hong Kong during the May
holiday. Write a letter to a travel agency to explain your travel plans,
ask for relevant information, and express your gratitude for a reply.
(10 points)

  密切相关 be intimately linked

Section Ⅳ Writing

  中度重视教育的古板a strong tradition of valuing education

Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each
passage by choosing A, B, C and D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.
(40 points)

  争执的景况 paradoxical state of affairs

[D] It is controversial though persuasive。

  使她们承受独特的进步力量have subjected them to unique evolutionary



5.[A] Only[B] So[C] Even[D] Hence

  由细菌滋生的:Have a bacterial cause

[D] By the 1730’s,migrants already skilled in a trade were in more
demand by American employers than were unskilled laborers。



  从前被感觉是不相干的have previously been thought unrelated

[C] They have relied in drawing their conclusions on what managers say
rather than on what managers do。

  结构提醒:that some diseases 是前方 the idea 的同位语从句,not
previously thought to have a bacterial
cause做前置定语修饰前边的diseases,主干是some diseases were actually

[A] They have criticized managers for not following the classical
rational model of decision analysis。


the maximum profit.[C] A flower stall in which the various species of
flowers are arranged according to their price.[D] A housing
development in which the length of the front struts supporting the porch
of each

meaning of the difference between left-eyed and right-eyed
flatfish?[A] “Most striking” (line 3, paragraph 1)[B] “variation is
adaptive” (line 2, paragraph 2)[C] “mechanically disadvantageous”
(line 7, paragraph 3)[D] “evolutionary red herring” (line 9, paragraph

[A] Watching related expenses and making wise choice

17.[A] development[B] origin[C] consequence[D] instrument

Three recordings illustrate Coltrane’s energizing explorations.
Recording Kind of Blue with Miles Davis, Coltrane found himself outside
bop, exploring modal melodies. Here he played surging, lengthy solos
built largely around repeated motifs — an organizing principle unlike
that of free jazz saxophone player Ornette Coleman, who modulated or
altered melodies in his solos. On Giant Steps, Coltrane debuted as
leader, introducing his own compositions. Here the sheets of sound,
downbeat accents, repetitions, and great speed are part of each solo,
and the variety of the shapes of his phrases is unique. Coltrane’s
searching explorations produced solid achievement. My Favorite Things
was another kind of watershed. Here Coltrane played the soprano
saxophone, an instrument seldom used by jazz musicians. Musically, the
results were astounding. With the soprano’s piping sound, ideas that had
sounded dark and brooding acquired a feeling of giddy fantasy。

[B] describe carefully how migrants of different ethnic backgrounds
preserved their culture in the United States。

[A] Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not。

[C] Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a
problem; Manager Y does not。

  1. In terms of its tone and form, the text can best be characterized as
    [A] dogmatic explanation. [B] indignant denial. [C] enthusiastic
    praise. [D] speculative study。

13.[A] affirm[B] witness[C] observe[D] approve

Finally, Bailyn argues that the colonies were a half-civilized
hinterland of the European culture system. He is undoubtedly correct to
insist that the colonies were part of an Anglo-American empire. But to
divide the empire into English core and colonial periphery, as Bailyn
does, devalues the achievements of colonial culture. It is true, as
Bailyn claims, that high culture in the colonies never matched that in
England. But what of seventeenth-century New England, where the settlers
created effective laws, built a distinguished university, and published
books? Bailyn might respond that New England was exceptional. However,
the ideas and institutions developed by New England Puritans had
powerful effects on North American culture。

Do not write the address。

  1. The text suggests which of the following about the writers on
    management mentioned in line 1, paragraph 2?

[D] Maintaining realistic expectations

In this section there is a paragraph in English .Translate it into
Chinese and write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the
classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the
problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making
a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision.
Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives
rely on what is vaguely termed intuition to manage a network of
interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity,
inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the
process of thinking。

In this part, you are asked to write a composition according to the
information below. You should write more than 150 words neatly on ANSWER
SHEET 2. (15 points)

[C] The colonists imitated the high culture of England, and did not
develop a culture that was uniquely their own。

Part B

[B] Paying attention to details